Open and Sustainable Innovation Systems (OASIS) Lab working notes

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context

Examples

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Papers

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Referenced in

R: ureDevelopmentDataInfrastructures2009

examines the rich sociotechnical context behind data that is often ignored, putting up barriers to effective data reuse

Z: Scholarly argumentation operates on atomic statements and concepts as fundamental units

Note: we need to work out whether Interpretivist epistemologies will have different implications; my initial instinct is no; the structure won't change that much (although context might become far more important)

Z: Conceptual combination is-fundamental-to creative knowledge production

If I understand it correctly, Liane's approach of using quantum theory (see, e.g., R: aertsConceptsTheirDynamics2013a)to model concepts makes Atomicity important, but also inextricably tied to context. This is also a central idea in Niklas Luhmann's idea of the sys/Zettelkasten, where individual notes (which are supposed to represent individual "ideas") obtain their meaning only by being connected to other ideas; that is, their meaning is determined by the context of the notes they are connected to.

Z: How can we support explicit contention with evidence when synthesizing knowledge claims?

But the notion of "levels of evidence" is contentious, especially in settings with high interdisciplinarity - the explicit articulation and negotiation of degrees of belief and uncertainty, about epistemology even, might be where true interdisciplinary progress happens. Prematurely "compressing" these nuances into a single context-less number threatens the real usefulness of that number for synthesis.

@agarwalExploringContextInformation2017

context is... contextual? Hard to pin down. What counts as "context" for a person is very dependent on other contextual factors. Probably the same for information objects. (p.7)

My current kernel of a reading/writing/thinking process

To retain the context of the time stream, I block ref them back to their place in Daily Notes, where possible

Z: Thinking is hot, not cold

Part of hte crucial context involves my personal background and history, details of which might be sensitive

April 26th, 2020

an example-of how Z: Effective synthesis is rare and missing context, if you're going directly only off of citation statements in papers (makes me think of how this also makes the job of systems like sys/scite.ai harder)

Z: Specifying context for future reuse is costly

Z: Specifying context for future reuse requires predicting trajectories of future reuse, and it's hard to predict the future! Particularly if you want to creatively reuse something in quite different contexts

@snowdenComplexActsKnowing2002

Talks a lot about how Z: Knowledge is fundamentally contextual, and defines boundaries of context within which knowledge transfer is easier/feasible

@tashmanLiquidTextFlexibleMultitouch2011

Claim To support active reading, systems must enable people to trace excerpts back to their original context (p. 7)

August 2nd, 2020

context grounded in methods, etc

June 29th, 2020

entropy in the information theory sense is supposed to answer the question "what is the smallest size of package I can send that retains all of the information I want to communicate?" this seems very relevant again to our question of how to compress ideas. I think the connection is a bit loose, but the principle of entropy *might* be relevant for thinking about how to decide what context is likely to be needed, given an entry point. Maybe also for conversations as context, to make it easier to share a sys/Zettelkasten (cf. idea: multiplayer zettelkastens)

Z: Context and privacy are in tension when sharing knowledge with others

Without understanding why an idea was written, how it relates to other ideas, what its precise meaning is in the context of the knowledge sharer, and how that idea is warranted or grounded in observations, details, and evidence, the "mileage" of that piece of information is extremely limited.

Z: Context and privacy are in tension when sharing knowledge with others

For example, often, important context for ideas comes from the knowledge worker's personal assessment of the credibility of ideas.

WP: JCDL Where the semantic publishing rubber meets the scholarly practice road

Note: each of these excerpts have rich mechanisms for context, e.g., connecting to other pieces (because they are "disembedded"), "transclude" in new contexts, in addition to auto signals to name of pdf, page number, and quick jump back to original location of excerpt. Same with the QDAS route.

@dourishWhatWeTalk2004

> "It is not simply the case that something is or is not context; rather, it may or may not be contextually relevant to some particular activity." context (p.22)

Z: Design systems, not tools

This might be one reason that Andy Matuschak and Michael Nielsen think that Z: The most transformative insights must come from a single "mind". Because it's really challenging to (or we haven't yet figured out how to) enable a medium with data model properties of compression, context, and compositionality that spans multiple minds; a distributed system that enfolds or spans more than one mind and their workflow.

@gentilePersonalizedKnowledgeGraphs2019

> "the layout of the text (e.g., tables) or ancillary information (e.g., chemical structures or other illustrations) are critical context to the understanding of the text." (p. 3)

@luttersBoundaryObjectsCollaborative2007

is seminal ref for thinking about flexible compression as a way to get at context based on empirical study of aircraft technical support

@blakeCollaborativeInformationSynthesis2006

is an example-of how context is critical for synthesis (in this case, showing the kinds of context queries scientists look for to try to do synthesis over contradictory findings in a systematic review

June 29th, 2020

what we integrate: zooming in on the context piece, as well as ingredients for compression and composability, a bit at the sub-discourse level.

July 12th, 2020

really great summary of what @harawaySituatedKnowledgesScience1988 says about how context really really matters (and what that means) when evaluating and interpreting knowledge claims @harrisonMakingEpistemologicalTrouble2011

@blakeCollaborativeInformationSynthesis2006

authors think that there is enough regularity in the types and locations of context information that we could build an automated system to extract htese bits of information, which would in turn enable exploration of a variety of hypothesis projections

January 26th, 2021

More example-of context in this paper examining what features are relevant to dig into when assessing a study that aims to estimate the causal impact of policies

@ackermanOrganizationalMemoryObjects2004

To properly deal with a discrepancy in benefits from the caller, a HLG employee needed to reuse information from the CARL database, among other sources of information, to create an escalation to the benefits group. To do this, she needed important context that was missing from the CARL record itself, such as details of the record's creation or maintenance (was it authoritative?), and any circumstances surrounding the caller's employment. The HLG employee dealt with this missing context by consulting an expert (a senior agent) and her own memory, rather than searching databases for additional information, even though that information could in principle be in there.

@blakeCollaborativeInformationSynthesis2006

some types of context information were more contextual, depending on the particular "hypothesis projection" of the review, which varied across the lifecycle of the project studied (e.g., location of medical condition, amount of exposure, confounding risk factors), while others were more constant regardless of hypothesis (e.g., study- and population-context information)

Z: Context and privacy are in tension when sharing knowledge with others

So the challenge is really: How do we provide enough context in entry points from a knowledge graph to benefit the knowledge reuser, while protecting the privacy of the knowledge sharer?

@taljaReasonsUseNon2003

Tricky to draw boundaries around what we mean by Domain, but it's supposed to be above an individual scholar, and includes some the scholar's context, but more granular than a "field"

context