So the new thing should have properties that the mere sum of the parts doesn't. But what properties? We think the core idea is that Z: Clearer cases of synthesis involve substantial conceptual innovation
Consider the difference between these two "summaries" of a set of papers:
Related work for systems paper
Darwin's theory of evolution
Species vary: some variations are bad, and some help with survival. Species struggle to survive. Some, but not all, organisms pass on new offspring.
Species struggle to survive. Species also vary, and some variations are good and some are bad for survival. Therefore, one precondition for species to survive and pass on offspring is by having or inheriting beneficial variations. This variation and selection process explains how we get the diversity of species we see today.
Relation to other constructs (outputs)
Examples (see also QR: Examples of synthesis)